Oracle 12c 基于ASM 的单实例 搭建手册

 

 


从Oracle 10g开始,Oracle 开始推广ASM的使用,到了11g,RAC 集群已经必须使用ASM,所以对ASM的掌握程度也决定RAC的运维水平,这篇Blog 演示 Oracle12c 基于ASM 的单实例的的环境搭建

 

    这样即可以玩12c 的ASM,又不需要起2个集群,从而方便学习。具体环境搭建步骤如下。

 

 

1  安装需要的RPM 包

 

binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.11.el6 (x86_64)

glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)

libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)

libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)

libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)

libXext-1.1 (x86_64)

libXtst-1.0.99.2 (x86_64)

libX11-1.3 (x86_64)

libXau-1.0.5 (x86_64)

libxcb-1.5 (x86_64)

libXi-1.3 (x86_64)

make-3.81-19.el6

sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64)

 

 

compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)

compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)

gcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)

gcc-c++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)

glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)

ksh  <== 任何版本的 ksh 都可以。

libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)

libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)

 

compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686)

glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)

glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)

libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)

libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)

libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)

libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)

libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)

libXext-1.1 (i686)

libXtst-1.0.99.2 (i686)

libX11-1.3 (i686)

libXau-1.0.5 (i686)

libxcb-1.5 (i686)

libXi-1.3 (i686)

 

 

2  创建ASM disk 并用UDEV 绑定

创建6个3G 的disk,这个直接使用VirtualBox命令来创建。 创建之前需要先关闭虚拟机。

 

用如下脚本获取绑定脚本:

for i in b c d e f g;

do

echo"KERNEL==\"sd*\", BUS==\"scsi\",PROGRAM==\"/sbin/scsi_id -g -u /dev/\$name\", RESULT==\"`/sbin/scsi_id -g -u/dev/sd$i`\", NAME=\"12casm-disk$i\", OWNER=\"grid\",GROUP=\"asmadmin\", MODE=\"0660\""

done

 

KERNEL=="sd*",BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id -g -u  /dev/$name",RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB626d9087-8bf68e7e",NAME="12casm-diskb", OWNER="grid",GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"

KERNEL=="sd*",BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id -g -u  /dev/$name",RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VBf5a8c435-19b9adf9",NAME="12casm-diskc", OWNER="grid",GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"

KERNEL=="sd*",BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id -g -u  /dev/$name",RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB13895f62-318c2cb4",NAME="12casm-diskd", OWNER="grid",GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"

KERNEL=="sd*",BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id -g -u  /dev/$name",RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB5049991a-741b6a85",NAME="12casm-diske", OWNER="grid",GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"

KERNEL=="sd*",BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id -g -u  /dev/$name",RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB6ad43135-cac8a708",NAME="12casm-diskf", OWNER="grid",GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"

KERNEL=="sd*",BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id -g -u  /dev/$name",RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VBe6fb6130-2a921dde",NAME="12casm-diskg", OWNER="grid",GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"

 

将产生的结果添加到/etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules文件。

 

--重启udev

[root@12cAsm dave]#  start_udev

Starting udev: [  OK  ]

[root@12cAsm dave]#

 

--查看设备:

[root@12cAsm dave]# ll /dev/12casm*

brw-rw----. 1 grid asmadmin 8, 16 Nov 2900:35 /dev/12casm-diskb

brw-rw----. 1 grid asmadmin 8, 32 Nov 2900:35 /dev/12casm-diskc

brw-rw----. 1 grid asmadmin 8, 48 Nov 2900:35 /dev/12casm-diskd

brw-rw----. 1 grid asmadmin 8, 64 Nov 2900:35 /dev/12casm-diske

brw-rw----. 1 grid asmadmin 8, 80 Nov 2900:35 /dev/12casm-diskf

brw-rw----. 1 grid asmadmin 8, 96 Nov 2900:35 /dev/12casm-diskg

[root@12cAsm dave]#

 

至此配置结束,在ASM的配置中,ASM_DISKSTRING参数指向'/dev/asm-disk*'就可以了。

 

3   禁用防火墙和SELNUX

 

关闭防火墙:

service iptables status

service iptables stop

chkconfig iptables off

chkconfig iptables --list

 

 

设置/etc/selinux/config 文件,将SELINUX设置为disabled。

 

4   创建目录结构

 

mkdir -p /u01/grid

mkdir -p /u01/app/grid/12.1.0

chown -R grid:oinstall /u01

 

mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/12.1.0/db_1

chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle

chmod -R 775 /u01

 

 

5   添加组和用户并设置环境变量

groupadd -g 1000 oinstall

groupadd -g 1200 asmadmin

groupadd -g 1201 asmdba

groupadd -g 1202 asmoper

groupadd -g 1300 dba

groupadd -g 1301 oper

useradd -m -u 1100 -g oinstall -Gasmadmin,asmdba,asmoper,dba -d /home/grid -s /bin/bash grid

useradd -m -u 1101 -g oinstall -Gdba,oper,asmdba -d /home/oracle -s /bin/bash oracle

 

 

确认用户信息:

[root@rac1 ~]# id oracle

uid=502(oracle) gid=507(oinstall)groups=507(oinstall),502(dba),503(oper),506(asmdba)

[root@rac1 ~]# id grid

uid=1100(grid) gid=507(oinstall)groups=507(oinstall),504(asmadmin),506(asmdba),505(asmoper)

 

 

修改密码:

passwd oracle

passwd grid

 

 

配置环境变量

--Grid用户

修改grid用户的.bash_profile.注意每个节点的不同内容:

export ORACLE_SID=+ASM

export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/grid

export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/grid/12.1.0

exportPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH:/usr/local/bin/:.

export TEMP=/tmp

export TMP=/tmp

export TMPDIR=/tmp

umask 022

 

--Oracle 用户

修改oracle 用户的.bash_profile,注意每个节点的不同内容:

ORACLE_SID=dave;export ORACLE_SID

ORACLE_UNQNAME=dave;export ORACLE_UNQNAME

JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/java; export JAVA_HOME

ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle; export ORACLE_BASE

ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/12.1.0/db_1; exportORACLE_HOME

ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM

NLS_DATE_FORMAT="YYYY:MM:DD HH24:MI:SS";export NLS_DATE_FORMAT

NLS_LANG=american_america.ZHS16GBK; exportNLS_LANG

TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin; exportTNS_ADMIN

ORA_NLS11=$ORACLE_HOME/nls/data; export ORA_NLS11

PATH=.:${JAVA_HOME}/bin:${PATH}:$HOME/bin:$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$ORA_CRS_HOME/bin

PATH=${PATH}:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/local/bin

export PATH

LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib

LD_LIBRARY_PATH=${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/oracm/lib

LD_LIBRARY_PATH=${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH

CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE

CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib

CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib

CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/network/jlib

export CLASSPATH

THREADS_FLAG=native; export THREADS_FLAG

export TEMP=/tmp

export TMPDIR=/tmp

umask 022 

 

 

 

6   为安装用户设置资源限制

6.1             修改/etc/security/limits.conf

 

以 root 用户身份,在节点上,在 /etc/security/limits.conf 文件中添加如下内容,或者执行执行如下命令:

 

[root@12cAsm dave]# cat >>/etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF

> grid soft nproc 2047

> grid hard nproc 16384

> grid soft nofile 1024

> grid hard nofile 65536

> oracle soft nproc 2047

> oracle hard nproc 16384

> oracle soft nofile 1024

> oracle hard nofile 65536

> EOF

[root@12cAsm dave]#

 

 

6.2             修改/etc/pam.d/login

 

[root@12cAsmdave]# cat >> /etc/pam.d/login <<EOF

>session    required     pam_limits.so

> EOF

[root@12cAsmdave]#

 

 

6.3          shell 的限制

对默认的 shell 启动文件进行以下更改,以便更改所有 Oracle 安装所有者的 ulimit 设置:

 

[root@12cAsm dave]# cat >>/etc/profile <<EOF

> if [ /$USER = "oracle" ] ||[ /$USER = "grid" ]; then

>    if [ /$SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then

>        ulimit -p 16384

>        ulimit -n 65536

>    else

>        ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536

>    fi

>    umask 022

> fi

> EOF

[root@12cAsm dave]#

 

7  修改内核参数/etc/sysctl.conf

 

在sysctl.conf 中加入以下内容:

 

kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
fs.file-max = 6815744
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576

net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576

kernel.panic_on_oops = 30

 

8  安装Clusterware

安装之前要确认/etc/hosts 配置:

[root@12cAsm dave]# cat /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1  localhost 12cAsm

 

不然会报错。

 

已grid 用户运行安装程序: runInstaller

 基于

 

其他都是下一步的操作。 这里不截图了。

 

手册

 

 

执行最后会让我们运行一个root.sh 脚本。

 实例

 

 

 

[root@12cAsm /]#/u01/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh

Changing permissions of /u01/oraInventory.

Adding read,write permissions for group.

Removing read,write,execute permissions forworld.

 

Changing groupname of /u01/oraInventory tooinstall.

The execution of the script is complete.

[root@12cAsm /]#

 

 

[root@12cAsm /]#/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/root.sh

Performing root user operation.

 

The following environment variables are setas:

   ORACLE_OWNER= grid

   ORACLE_HOME=  /u01/app/grid/12.0.1

 

Enter the full pathname of the local bindirectory: [/usr/local/bin]:

  Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin ...

  Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ...

  Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ...

 

 

Creating /etc/oratab file...

Entries will be added to the /etc/oratabfile as needed by

Database Configuration Assistant when adatabase is created

Finished running generic part of rootscript.

Now product-specific root actions will beperformed.

 

To configure GridInfrastructure for a Stand-Alone Server run the following command as the rootuser:

/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/perl/bin/perl-I/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/perl/lib -I/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/crs/install/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/crs/install/roothas.pl

 

 

To configure GridInfrastructure for a Cluster execute the following command as grid user:

/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/crs/config/config.sh

This command launches the GridInfrastructure Configuration Wizard. The wizard also supports silent operation,and the parameters can be passed through the response file that is available inthe installation media.

 

[root@12cAsm /]#

 

我们这里是单节点的ASM,所以执行如下SQL:

/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/perl/bin/perl-I/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/perl/lib -I/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/crs/install/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/crs/install/roothas.pl

 

 

[root@12cAsm /]#/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/perl/bin/perl -I/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/perl/lib-I/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/crs/install /u01/app/grid/12.0.1/crs/install/roothas.pl

Using configuration parameter file:/u01/app/grid/12.0.1/crs/install/crsconfig_params

LOCAL ADD MODE

Creating OCR keys for user 'grid', privgrp'oinstall'..

Operation successful.

LOCAL ONLY MODE

Successfully accumulated necessary OCRkeys.

Creating OCR keys for user 'root', privgrp'root'..

Operation successful.

CRS-4664: Node 12casm successfully pinned.

2014/11/29 02:16:15 CLSRSC-330: AddingClusterware entries to file 'oracle-ohasd.conf'

 

 

12casm    2014/11/29 02:17:09    /u01/app/grid/12.0.1/cdata/12casm/backup_20141129_021709.olr     0    

 

CRS-2791: Starting shutdown of Oracle HighAvailability Services-managed resources on '12casm'

CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.evmd' on'12casm'

CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.evmd' on '12casm'succeeded

CRS-2793: Shutdown of Oracle HighAvailability Services-managed resources on '12casm' has completed

CRS-4133: Oracle High Availability Serviceshas been stopped.

CRS-4123: Oracle High Availability Serviceshas been started.

2014/11/29 02:19:52CLSRSC-327: Successfully configured Oracle Restart for a standalone server

 

[root@12cAsm /]#

 

--检查:

[root@12cAsm /]# ocrcheck

Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is asfollows :

     Version                  :          4

     Total space (kbytes)     :    409568

     Used space (kbytes)      :       200

     Available space (kbytes) :     409368

     ID                       : 1150490114

     Device/File Name         : /u01/app/grid/12.0.1/cdata/localhost/local.ocr

                                    Device/Fileintegrity check succeeded

 

                                    Device/Filenot configured

 

                                    Device/Filenot configured

 

                                    Device/File not configured

 

                                    Device/Filenot configured

 

     Cluster registry integrity check succeeded

 

     Logical corruption check succeeded

 

[root@12cAsm /]#

 

 

[root@12cAsm /]# crsctl status res -t

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name           Target  State       Server                   Statedetails      

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Local Resources

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ora.ons

               OFFLINE OFFLINE      12casm                   STABLE

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cluster Resources

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ora.cssd

     1        OFFLINE OFFLINE                               STABLE

ora.diskmon

     1        OFFLINE OFFLINE                               STABLE

ora.evmd

      1       ONLINE  ONLINE       12casm                   STABLE

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[root@12cAsm /]#

 

 

 

9  安装Oracle 软件

 

以Oracle 用户执行安装程序。

 搭建

 

 

注意,选择只安装数据库软件。

 实例


然后都是下一步的操作。


oracle


oracle

 

 

执行脚本:

 

[root@12cAsm /]#/u01/app/oracle/12.0.1/db_1/root.sh

Performing root user operation.

 

The following environment variables are setas:

   ORACLE_OWNER= oracle

   ORACLE_HOME= /u01/app/oracle/12.0.1/db_1

 

Enter the full pathname of the local bindirectory: [/usr/local/bin]:

The contents of "dbhome" have notchanged. No need to overwrite.

The contents of "oraenv" have notchanged. No need to overwrite.

The contents of "coraenv" havenot changed. No need to overwrite.

 

Entries will be added to the /etc/oratabfile as needed by

Database Configuration Assistant when adatabase is created

Finished running generic part of rootscript.

Now product-specific root actions will beperformed.

[root@12cAsm /]#

 

 

10 创建ASM DISK GROUPS

 

使用grid用户执行asmca,创建磁盘组Data。

 

oracle


手册


oracle


asm


asm

12c


12c

 

 

ASM disk group 搞定。

 

 

检查ASM DISK GROUPS的情况:

 

[grid@12cAsm bin]$ crsctl status res -t

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name           Target  State       Server                   Statedetails      

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Local Resources

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ora.DATA.dg

               ONLINE  ONLINE      12casm                   STABLE

ora.asm

               ONLINE  ONLINE      12casm                  Started,STABLE

ora.ons

               OFFLINE OFFLINE      12casm                   STABLE

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cluster Resources

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ora.cssd

      1       ONLINE  ONLINE       12casm                   STABLE

ora.diskmon

     1        OFFLINE OFFLINE                               STABLE

ora.evmd

     1        ONLINE  ONLINE      12casm                   STABLE

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[grid@12cAsm bin]$

 

 

 

11 创建基于ASM 的数据库实例

  

已oracle 用户运行dbca,创建实例。

 12c


搭建


12c

 

 

 asm

 

 

12 验证

[grid@12cAsm bin]$ crsctl status res -t

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Name           Target  State       Server                   Statedetails      

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Local Resources

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ora.DATA.dg

               ONLINE  ONLINE      12casm                   STABLE

ora.asm

               ONLINE  ONLINE      12casm                  Started,STABLE

ora.ons

               OFFLINE OFFLINE      12casm                   STABLE

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cluster Resources

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ora.cssd

     1        ONLINE  ONLINE      12casm                   STABLE

ora.dave.db

      1       ONLINE  ONLINE       12casm                   Open,STABLE

ora.diskmon

     1        OFFLINE OFFLINE                               STABLE

ora.evmd

      1       ONLINE  ONLINE       12casm                   STABLE

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[grid@12cAsm bin]$

 

 

[oracle@12cAsm ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

 

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production onSat Nov 29 15:09:37 2014

 

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

 

 

Connected to:

Oracle Database 12c Enterprise EditionRelease 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Automatic StorageManagement, OLAP, Advanced Analytics

and Real Application Testing options

 

SQL> set lin 140           

SQL> select * from v$version;

 

BANNER                                           CON_ID

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OracleDatabase 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production         0

PL/SQLRelease 12.1.0.2.0 - Production                            0

CORE    12.1.0.2.0  Production                                0

TNSfor Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production                        0

NLSRTLVersion 12.1.0.2.0 - Production                            0

 

SQL> show con_name

 

CON_NAME

------------------------------

CDB$ROOT

SQL> col pdb_name for a20

SQL> select PDB_NAME,CON_UID,pdb_id,status from dba_pdbs;

 

PDB_NAME        CON_UID     PDB_ID STATUS

-------------------- ---------- -------------------

PDAVE            1778789142      3 NORMAL

PDB$SEED         1845119286      2 NORMAL

 

SQL> select con_id,dbid,NAME,OPEN_MODEfrom v$pdbs;

 

   CON_ID  DBID NAME              OPEN_MODE

---------- ---------------------------------------- ----------

     2 1845119286 PDB$SEED               READ ONLY

     3 1778789142 PDAVE              READ WRITE

 

SQL>

 

 

 

 

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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